By Günter Schmid
An creation to the technology of nanoparticles, from basic rules to their use in novel purposes. As a foundation for figuring out nanoparticle habit, the ebook first outlines the rules of quantum measurement habit, nanoparticles structure, formation of semiconductor and steel nanoparticles. It then is going directly to describe the chemical syntheses of nanoparticles with outlined features, their structural, electric and magnetic houses, in addition to present tips on how to video display those houses. between others, the subsequent nanoparticle-based purposes are mentioned: Single-electron units extremely dense recording media Bioelectronic units and sensors Labeling of proteins, nucleic acids and different biomaterials. With its transparent constitution and complete insurance, subsidized by means of a number of examples from the new literature, this can be a major reference for chemists and fabrics scientists operating with and constructing nanoparticle platforms.
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Extra resources for Nanoparticles: From Theory to Application
In this Section we give a brief introduction to a simple model of a single-electron transistor which already captures many of the relevant aspects. For detailed discussions we refer to the more specialized reviews and references therein. A schematic representation of a single-electron transistor is given in Figure 2-14. It consists of a small conducting island connected to its surroundings via two tunneling barriers and a gate electrode. The capacitances of the barriers and the gate are denoted CS , CD and CG , and the drain-source and gate voltages V ¼ VD À VS and VG .
Here, the width d of the potential well corresponds to the diameter of the quantum dot. The only allowed states are those whose wavefunctions vanish at the borders of the well . This leads to discrete energy levels [7, 10]. The energy gap between the lowest possible energy levels for electrons and holes Eg ðdÞ is larger than that of a bulk material Eg (bulk). If the box is a sphere of diameter d, the Schro¨dinger equation can be solved by introducing spherical coordinates and by separating the equation into a radial part and a part that contains the angular momentum [61, 62].
The relative importance of energy quantization versus charging energy can be judged from the magnitude of the terms e 2 =C and De in the expression above. Typically, the capacitance C varies with the diameter d of a system like C A 2pee 0 d (cf. Eq. (18)), and thus EC z e 2 =ee 0 d (cf. Eq. (19)), whereas the quantization energies are of the order of De A h 2 =2m Ã d 2 (cf. Eq. (13)). Most trivially, for smaller systems quantum eﬀects become stronger. 3 Tunneling Transport – Line Shape of Conductance Peaks A slightly diﬀerent approach to treating electron transport through quantum dots considers conduction as a transmission problem through an electron island.
Nanoparticles: From Theory to Application by Günter Schmid