By Dirk Leuffen
This leading edge new textual content presents a state of the art advent to the learn of ecu integration, focusing centrally on explaining the differentiated personality of the ecu Union by way of coverage components, institutional improvement and geographical span.
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Extra info for Differentiated Integration: Explaining Variation in the European Union
These developments discredited the idea of a linear integration process ending up in a federal European state and inexorably driven by ‘spillovers’ from one policy to another and from the original member states to further countries. Rather, De Gaulle’s vision of a ‘Europe of Fatherlands’, and his rejection of a further delegation and pooling of national sovereignty, was more in line with realist theory. The ensuing ‘doldrums era’ (Caporaso and Keeler 1995: 13), which was characterized by the absence of big leaps in integration, reoriented research on the European Community away from integration theory altogether.
At the time of writing, there is no area of economic and social regulation escaping EU-level involvement. It is in this context that scholars refer to the EU as a ‘regulatory state’ (Majone 1996). 5 became subject to European level decision-making as a result of the SEA and after the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty. The trajectory of monetary policy integration is particularly impressive. Beginning in the 1980s, this policy reaches the top level of vertical integration, supranational centralization, by the end of the 1990s.
Vertical integration in the area of social or ‘market-correcting’ regulation took off: ‘Since national standards on environment, consumer protection, industrial health and security, or labour markets often work as non-tariff barriers to trade, the need for harmonization at the EU level became increasingly evident’ (Börzel 2005: 221). At the time of writing, there is no area of economic and social regulation escaping EU-level involvement. It is in this context that scholars refer to the EU as a ‘regulatory state’ (Majone 1996).
Differentiated Integration: Explaining Variation in the European Union by Dirk Leuffen