By Broekhuis, Hans
This examine indicates that Scandinavian item shift and so-called A-scrambling within the continental Germanic languages are a similar, and goals at supplying an account of the difference that we discover with recognize to this phenomenon by means of combining definite points of the Minimalist software and Optimality conception. extra particularly, it really is claimed that representations created by means of a simplified model of the computational procedure of human language CHL are evaluated in an optimality theoretic model through taking recourse to a truly small set of output constraints.
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Additional resources for Derivations and Evaluations: Object Shift in the Germanic Languages
Assume that in both languages the constraint RECOVERABILITY outranks the constraints TEL and LE(CP); the rankings of the constraints in (21) are then as given in (23). Where MP and OT are similar: The architecture of syntax 21 (23) a. b. French: REC >> LE(CP) >> TEL English: REC >> TEL <> LE(CP) The evaluation of the French examples in (19) proceeds as in Tableau 4. Since the relative pronoun has a local antecedent it is recoverable after deletion, so that all candidates satisfy REC. The second candidate is the optimal candidate because it is the only one that does not violate LE(CP); the fact that this candidate violates the lower-ranked constraint TEL is tolerated since this in fact enables the satisfaction of the higher-ranked constraint LE(CP); the violations of TEL therefore do not play a role, which is again indicated by shading the cells of the non-optimal candidates.
The man [whoi that I know ti] (18) a. the book [about whichi that he spoke ti] b. *the book [about whichi that he spoke ti] c. *the book [about whichi that he spoke ti] d. *the book [about whichi that he spoke ti] When we contrast these examples with the French relative clauses in (19) and (20), we see that English and French differ in that the former allows a wider variety of constructions with a bare relative pronoun than the latter. However, when the relative pronoun is embedded in a PP (or an NP), the two languages behave the same.
As we have already seen, variation between languages is attributed to the evaluator in Figure 2, more specifically to the differences in ranking of the otherwise universal constraints. Under this view, the task of the language learner is to determine the constraint ranking (and the lexicon) of the language. The discussion above seems to reveal another important difference between MP and OT: in the former cross-linguistic variation is solely due to differences in lexical specifications, whereas in the latter it is rather due to the ranking of the universal constraints.
Derivations and Evaluations: Object Shift in the Germanic Languages by Broekhuis, Hans