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Deep Freeze: The United States, the International - download pdf or read online

By Dian Olson Belanger

ISBN-10: 0870818309

ISBN-13: 9780870818301

In Deep Freeze, Dian Olson Belanger tells the tale of the pioneers who equipped conceivable groups, made important clinical discoveries, and verified Antarctica as a continent devoted to peace and the pursuit of technological know-how, many years after the 1st explorers planted flags within the ice.

In the stressful Nineteen Fifties, at the same time the area used to be locked within the chilly conflict, U.S. scientists, maintained through the Navy’s Operation Deep Freeze, got here jointly in Antarctica with opposite numbers from 11 different nations to take part within the overseas Geophysical yr (IGY). On July 1, 1957, they started systematic, simultaneous medical observations of the south-polar ice and surroundings. Their collaborative luck over eighteen months encouraged the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, which formalized their peaceable pursuit of clinical wisdom. nonetheless construction at the achievements of the participants and distrustful countries thrown jointly through the IGY from at the same time cautious army, medical, and political cultures, technology flourishes this present day and peace endures.

The yr 2007 will mark the 50th anniversary of the IGY and the graduation of a brand new overseas Polar Year—a compelling second to study what a novel firm entire in a time. Belanger attracts from interviews, diaries, memoirs, and reliable documents to weave jointly the 1st thorough examine of the sunrise of Antarctica’s clinical age. Deep Freeze deals soaking up examining when you have ventured onto Antarctic ice and people who dream of it, in addition to historians, scientists, and coverage makers.

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Extra resources for Deep Freeze: The United States, the International Geophysical Year, and the Origins of Antarctica's Age of Science

Sample text

He had little information, however, on the southern high latitudes, which he believed “held the key” to the weather of the Southern Hemisphere. S. ” He did not succeed. 10 The first cooperative international polar studies grew from the mind of Austrian naval lieutenant Karl Weyprecht, a member of the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition of 1872–1874. ” At a meeting of the Association of German Naturalists and Physicists in Graz in 1875, he proposed that a ring of scientific stations be established around the Arctic Circle where synchronous observations of weather, terrestrial magnetism, and other geophysical phenomena would be made over the span of a year.

S. 40 Almost a decade later, when the Navy leaders of Operation Deep Freeze pored over the three-volume Highjump report, they would profit from such observations as: Winds and currents can, and will, change ice conditions radically over a short period of time. Parking a plane on the ice “for even one second” can mean sticking fast to it; placing plywood under the wheels helps. Icebreaker channels cut as straight as possible help prevent ships following in convoy from scraping their sides on jagged ice.

While he did not emphasize it, the timing of his second expedition allowed him to take advantage of the fundraising and public relations potential of the Polar Year as well as contribute (a bit late) some meteorological, ice-depth, upper-air physics, and oceanographic observations. 20 But this expedition will ever be known for Byrd’s solitary winter at Bolling Advance Weather Base, a tiny “shack” buried in drift 100 miles south of Little America. Why he chose to remain there alone, in defiance of polar survival wisdom, still perplexes.

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Deep Freeze: The United States, the International Geophysical Year, and the Origins of Antarctica's Age of Science by Dian Olson Belanger

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