By Geneviève Escure
This paintings examines the unguided acquisition of a regular language through audio system of nonstandard types in designated linguistic and geographical events: in a Caribbean creole scenario (Belize); and in a non-creole scenario (PRC) in China. In either situations, psychosocial elements, linguistic bias towards non-native renderings of the normal types, the social prestige in their audio system, and comparable political and academic results play a major position within the improvement of moment dialects. the last word target underlying the comparability of particular discourse variables in Belizean and chinese language ordinary acquisition is to judge the relative benefits of substratal, superstratal, and common causes in language improvement.
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Additional info for Creole and Dialect Continua: Standard Acquisition Processes in Belize and China (Prc) (Creole Language Library)
Some nautical lexical items are evident in most Belizean lects. 12 This may be typical of the combined influences likely to have led to the development of the lexicon of creoles, as well as other linguistic components. A version of the superstrate hypothesis, which assumes a single Europeanbased origin for creoles, holds that pidgins or creoles are derived primarily from regional, colloquial, or nonstandard versions of the dominant colonial lan guages. This view is also endorsed by Chaudenson (1992) in interpretations of the development of French-based creoles in the Indian Ocean as derived exclu sively from dialectal forms of French.
Because of the scarcity of teachers, young teachers and teachers' aides are put to work imme diately after primary school, with little or no teacher training. They admit that they frequently switch to Creole in the classroom for more fluent explanations. Similar problems are involved in teaching basic subjects to non-Creole Belizean children. Because teachers are often recruited from among the Garinagu, the Maya-speaking children of a remote village are likely to be intro duced to reading and writing in English by a native speaker of Garifuna who does not know a word of Maya and who has modeled his or her English on the fluctuating varieties she or he has heard in school, on radio reports which pre sent BBC news and local news in Belizean standard, and on Billy Graham's homilies which reach the most distant villages.
African phenotypical characteristics predominate in the Garifuna, who are physically indistinguish able from the darkest Creoles. Their African heritage is mostly represented in the folklore, whereas the Amerindian component has been preserved primarily in their native language, Garifuna, which is mostly Arawakan in structure (Taylor 1977), and will be briefly outlined at the end of this chapter. 4 Mestizos Another significant event leading to greater ethnolinguistic diversity was the Indian Caste War (1847-1853) in Mexico which led to a heavy migration of Yucatecan Mayas and Mestizos (Spanish/Indians) from Yucatan into the north ern (Corozal and Orange Walk) and western (Cayo) districts of Belize.
Creole and Dialect Continua: Standard Acquisition Processes in Belize and China (Prc) (Creole Language Library) by Geneviève Escure