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New PDF release: Codex Madrid.

By Leonardo da Vinci.

В 1966 году в Национальной библиотеке в Мадриде были обнаружены два манускрипта, написанные Леонардо. Когда-то они не были учтены при каталогизации, и об их существовании не было известно. Этим двум манускриптам дали условные названия «Мадридский кодекс I» и «Мадридский кодекс II». «Мадридский кодекс I» состоит из 192 листов 1490—1499 годов написания, содержащих изображения различных механизмов и изложения теории механики. Хотя работа и посвящена механике, в ней есть заметки по астрономии и по оптике.

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Download e-book for iPad: Codex Madrid. by Leonardo da Vinci.

В 1966 году в Национальной библиотеке в Мадриде были обнаружены два манускрипта, написанные Леонардо. Когда-то они не были учтены при каталогизации, и об их существовании не было известно. Этим двум манускриптам дали условные названия «Мадридский кодекс I» и «Мадридский кодекс II». «Мадридский кодекс I» состоит из 192 листов 1490—1499 годов написания, содержащих изображения различных механизмов и изложения теории механики.

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Sample text

Adaptations) which made it possible for animals in general to make their way more or less efficiently in space. Making one’s way in space is movement. Minds first evolved to represent space in order to solve the problem of controlling movement – which is behavior: where should I be next? What should I do next? But we are not animals in general. We are an extraordinarily intelligent and intensely Evolution and explanation 19 social animal. What particular environmental problem did our minds evolve to represent and solve?

But, in their focus on genes as the product of natural selection, evolutionary biologists have sometimes been inclined to neglect the phenotype, and thus to neglect as well the fact that selection operates on phenotypes, not genotypes; that it is the success of the phenotype that determines which genes get copied into subsequent generations; and that phenotypes, to do their adaptive work, must first develop – they must first be produced. Steven Stearns described the problem this way: Population genetics was the first attempt at a predictive quantitative theory of evolution.

What should I do next? But we are not animals in general. We are an extraordinarily intelligent and intensely Evolution and explanation 19 social animal. What particular environmental problem did our minds evolve to represent and solve? The perennial adaptive problem for any species, but especially our slowly developing, long-lived, highly intelligent, and intensely social species, is that of environmental uncertainty. This is the problem of obtaining sufficient information to make our way through complex social space in the face of virtually continuous sociocultural change.

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Codex Madrid. by Leonardo da Vinci.


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