By Dieter Kleinknecht, George A. Porter (auth.), M. E. De Broe, G. A. Porter, W. M. Bennett, G. A. Verpooten (eds.)
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Extra info for Clinical Nephrotoxins: Renal Injury from Drugs and Chemicals
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1979; 15: 341-7. Verbeeck R, Tjandramaga TB, Mullie A, VerbesseIt R, Verberckmoes R, De Schepper PJ. Biotransformation of diftunisal and renal excretion of its glucoronides in renal insufficiency. Brit J Clin Pharmacol 1979; 7: 273-82. Eriksson LO, Wahlin-Boll E, Odar-Cederlof I, Lindholm L, Melander A. Inftuence of renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis and old age on the pharmacokinetics of diftunisal. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 36: 165-74. Aronoff GR, Ozawa T, DeSante KA, Nash JF, Ridolfo AS.
Owing to electro-negativity of the cell interior, resulting from Na, K-ATPase activity, a transfer of negatively charged molecules into cells occurs generally against an electrochemical gradient and requires energy ("active transport"). In contrast, efftux from cell to lumen takes place along the electrochemical gradient and does not necessitate a direct energy supply. Large celliinterstitium concentration gradients, up to 40 in isolated perfused rabbit proximal tubules, can build up during secretion .
Lipid soluble compounds cross the cellular membranes preferentially in their undissociated form. The ionized form favours trapping and subsequent elimination by the kidney. 10gical range of urine pH , and its excretion remains independent on tubular urine pH. 2. Reabsorption by facilitated mechanisms A certain number of drugs and xenobiotics are reabsorbed by facilitated mechanisms. Some organic anions are transported at the apical membrane of proximal tubule by a sodium-cotransport mechanisms.
Clinical Nephrotoxins: Renal Injury from Drugs and Chemicals by Dieter Kleinknecht, George A. Porter (auth.), M. E. De Broe, G. A. Porter, W. M. Bennett, G. A. Verpooten (eds.)