By Prof. Dr. Karl Leonhard (auth.), Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. Helmut Beckmann (eds.)
Karl Leonhard’s "Classification of Endogenous Psychoses” relies on subtle medical descriptions and characteristical symptom styles happening throughout the long term process psychiatric ailments. A prognosis could be made provided that the entire medical positive factors healthy, i.e. a distinct analysis is probably not made if one attribute symptom is missing. this is often the most and demanding distinction among Leonhard’s class and the operational diagnostic platforms that require the presence of a few yet no longer all particular indicators of a symptom cluster. Leonhard took over the basic positive aspects because the early days of Psychiatry and located, continually in line with personal live-long case experiences, that the endogenous psychoses need to be divided into 5 major nosological assorted teams: at the one aspect the prognostically beneficial unipolar affective psychoses, bipolar affective psychoses and cycloid psychoses and at the different facet the prognostically damaging unsystematic and systematic schizophrenias. in the meantime its reliability and validity were proven via clinical reviews and early effects supply guidance concerning the diverse origins and sundry healing techniques for the categorical ailment profiles.
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Extra resources for Classification of Endogenous Psychoses and their Differentiated Etiology
Mter four months she was again happy and composed and could be discharged. In 1938 she entered hospital for a third time. She was very labile, "cried and laughed simultaneously", expressed ideas of reference, such as people in the street were singing about her, and so on. Her whole environment seemed to her to be changed. Mter three months this phase ended completely. , exhibited a manic state with paranoid-querulous traits. In the first depression, which was the deepest, hypochondriacal ideas were present, which were again accompanied by alienation phenomena.
He was again admitted to hospital, where he made light of everything with a selfrighteous postUl'e. He was supercilious to the attendants. An urge to speak, flight of ideas, and distractibility were again present. , he remained excited and absconded in 1939. He was readmitted to the Frankfurt Hospital, and, as before, was in an elevated mood, displayed flight of ideas, superciliousness, and loquacity. Back in Institution H. he remained manic with no changes. In 1943 he was given a trial discharge.
Not infrequently, however, this labile period of quiet may lead to a more permanent one. In other cases the agitation assumes another, more annoying form when the anxiety recedes. Out of the constant complaining and begging, a constant sense of oppression may develop. With the same tenacity with which the patients previously complained about their horrible inner pains, they may now demand their immediate discharge. They may become more obviously querulous. Yet this sense of oppression, which still has a tortured component, differentiates them from other querulous patients.
Classification of Endogenous Psychoses and their Differentiated Etiology by Prof. Dr. Karl Leonhard (auth.), Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. Helmut Beckmann (eds.)