By Joseph Needham
Half one of many 5th quantity of Joseph Needham's nice company is written via one of many project's collaborators. Professor Tsien Tsuen-Hsuin, operating in average session with Dr Needham, has written the main entire account of each point of paper and printing in China to be released within the West. From an in depth research of the immense mass of resource fabric, Professor Tsien brings order and illumination to a space of expertise which has been of profound significance within the unfold of civilisation. the most physique of the publication is an in depth examine of the discovery, know-how and aesthetic improvement of printing in China. From the expansion and supreme refinements of early woodcut printing to the unfold of printing from movable sort and the improvement of book-binding, Professor Tsien includes the tale ahead to the start of the 19th century whilst 'more revealed pages existed in chinese language than in all different languages placed together'.
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Extra info for Chemistry and chemical technology Volume 5: Chemistry and chemical technology, Part 1, Paper and printing
Those produced in Szechuan in different sizes and colours were especially chosen by the Thang court for writing decrees, daily instructions and orders, and other official documents! g No specific mention of hemp paper is found after the Thang dynasty. It is assumed that since then hemp has not been the chief material for papermaking. The reason why it was the first material used in papermaking was the discovery that a sheet of hemp and similar fibres drained on a mat gave paper. Hemp was also used for papermaking in Europe before the early 19th century, when wood pulp was commercialised, though even today, many high-quality papers are still made of hemp.
Fei Chu (ft. + 1265) said that papers manufactured in Anhui, Chiangsu, and Chekiang were sold for as much as three times the price of those made in Szechuan, but people liked the fine, thin sheets of the imported paper better than the heavy local product: For the various needs of the government, the levy of tribute paper continued. It is recorded that the prefecture of Hsin-an (modern Hsi-hsien, Anhui) sent some 1,500,000 sheets of paper of seven varieties to the capital as tribute each year before • Some fifteen documents dated +-406 to + 99r in the British Museum, analysed by Clapperton (r), p.
Liang,' or Chinese ounce), and 1000 pieces of cash (wen,3 or copper) equalled one tae! of silver. b See partial text reported in WWTK, 1957, no. 9, pp. 5 tael of silver per picul in + 1716. 'li:l! 2ffi 52 32. PAPER AND PRINTING 32. PAPER AND PRINTING 53 cent of the handmade paper mills had closed by the beginning of the twentieth century. " (c) TECHNOLOGY AND PROCESSES OF PAPERMAKING THE TECHNICAL aspects of papermaking include the materials, tools, and methods of manufacture. From ancient times Chinese papermakers had wisely selected almost all the kinds of plants known to the modern paper industry as producing the best of fibres and yet being most economical in cost.
Chemistry and chemical technology Volume 5: Chemistry and chemical technology, Part 1, Paper and printing by Joseph Needham