Category: History Philosophy
By Dian Olson Belanger
In Deep Freeze, Dian Olson Belanger tells the tale of the pioneers who equipped conceivable groups, made important clinical discoveries, and verified Antarctica as a continent devoted to peace and the pursuit of technological know-how, many years after the 1st explorers planted flags within the ice.
In the stressful Nineteen Fifties, at the same time the area used to be locked within the chilly conflict, U.S. scientists, maintained through the Navy’s Operation Deep Freeze, got here jointly in Antarctica with opposite numbers from 11 different nations to take part within the overseas Geophysical yr (IGY). On July 1, 1957, they started systematic, simultaneous medical observations of the south-polar ice and surroundings. Their collaborative luck over eighteen months encouraged the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, which formalized their peaceable pursuit of clinical wisdom. nonetheless construction at the achievements of the participants and distrustful countries thrown jointly through the IGY from at the same time cautious army, medical, and political cultures, technology flourishes this present day and peace endures.
The yr 2007 will mark the 50th anniversary of the IGY and the graduation of a brand new overseas Polar Year—a compelling second to study what a novel firm entire in a time. Belanger attracts from interviews, diaries, memoirs, and reliable documents to weave jointly the 1st thorough examine of the sunrise of Antarctica’s clinical age. Deep Freeze deals soaking up examining when you have ventured onto Antarctic ice and people who dream of it, in addition to historians, scientists, and coverage makers.
By Wesley C. Salmon
This quantity of articles (most released, a few new) is a follow-up to the overdue Wesley C. Salmon's commonly learn assortment Causality And clarification (OUP 1998). It includes either released and unpublished articles, and specializes in comparable parts of inquiry: First, is technological know-how a rational company? Secondly, does technological know-how yield goal information regarding our global, even the elements that we won't realize at once? Salmon's personal take is that aim wisdom of the realm is feasible, and his paintings in those articles facilities round proving that this is often so. Salmon's influential status within the box guarantees that this quantity might be of curiosity to either undergraduates philosophers, basically within the philosophy of technological know-how.
By W. Craig Carter, William C. Johnson
This booklet represents a suite of 30 chosen papers from the paintings of John W. Cahn. Dr. Cahn is Senior Fellow on the fabrics technology and Engineering Laboratory of the nationwide Institute of criteria and know-how, and is widely known as a founding father of smooth thought and proposal in fabrics technology. the diversity of his learn incorporated kinetics and mechanisms of metallurgical section adjustments, surfaces, interfaces, defects, quasicrystals, thermodynamics, and different components impacting the basic realizing of fabrics technology.
Each paper encompasses a 2-4 web page assessment of the impression and historic point of view of the paintings. this is often a big assortment for college kids, teachers, and scientists attracted to fabrics science.
By Kersten T. Hall
Sir Isaac Newton as soon as declared that his momentous discoveries have been basically made due to having 'stood at the shoulders of giants'. a similar may additionally be stated of the scientists James Watson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the constitution of DNA used to be, absolutely, one of many greatest medical landmarks in heritage and, thank you principally to the luck of Watson's best-selling memoir 'The Double Helix', there may appear to be little new to assert approximately this tale.
But a lot is still acknowledged in regards to the specific 'giants' on whose shoulders Watson and Crick stood. of those, the crystallographer Rosalind Franklin, whose well-known X-ray diffraction photo often called 'Photo fifty one' supplied Watson and Crick with an essential clue, is now good recognized. a long way much less popular is the physicist William T. Astbury who, operating at Leeds within the Thirties at the constitution of wool for the neighborhood fabric undefined, pioneered using X-ray crystallography to review organic fibres. In so doing, he not just made the first actual stories of the constitution of DNA culminating in a photograph nearly similar to Franklin's 'Photo 51', but additionally based the recent technological know-how of 'molecular biology'.
Yet while Watson and Crick received the Nobel Prize, Astbury has principally been forgotten. The guy within the Monkeynut Coat tells the tale of this overlooked pioneer, displaying not just the way it was once due to him that Watson and Crick weren't left empty-handed, but additionally how his rules reworked biology leaving a legacy that is nonetheless felt this day.
By Samir Okasha
Does typical choice act totally on person organisms, on teams, on genes, or on entire species? Samir Okasha offers a finished research of the controversy in evolutionary biology over the degrees of choice, concentrating on conceptual, philosophical and foundational questions. a scientific framework is built for wondering typical choice performing at a number of degrees of the organic hierarchy; the framework is then used to assist unravel extraordinary matters. huge awareness is paid to the concept that of causality because it pertains to the degrees of choice, specifically the concept traditional choice at one hierarchical point could have results that 'filter' up or right down to different degrees. in contrast to earlier paintings during this region through philosophers of technological know-how, complete account is taken of the new organic literature on 'major evolutionary transitions' and the new resurgence of curiosity in multi-level choice thought between biologists. different organic subject matters mentioned contain Price's equation, relatives and team choice, the gene's eye view, evolutionary video game thought, outlaws and egocentric genetic parts, species and clade choice, and the evolution of individuality. Philosophical subject matters mentioned comprise reductionism and holism, causation and correlation, the character of hierarchical association, and realism and pluralism.
By Fritjof Capra
The writer of the bestselling The Tao of Physics and the internet of existence explores the profound social implications of rising clinical ideas and offers an leading edge framework for utilizing them to appreciate and resolve essentially the most very important problems with our time. for many of historical past, clinical research used to be according to linear considering. however the 1980's introduced a innovative swap. With the appearance of stronger machine energy, scientists might follow complexity theory--nonlinear thinking--to medical approaches way more simply than ever sooner than. Physicist Fritjof Capra used to be on the vanguard of the revolution, and in the internet of lifestyles he prolonged its scope by way of displaying the effect of complexity conception on residing organisms. In The Hidden Connections he breaks via one other frontier, this time utilising the foundations of complexity concept to an research of the vast sphere of all human interactions. Capra posits that during order to maintain existence sooner or later, the rules underlying our social associations needs to be in step with the association that nature has advanced to maintain the "web of life." In a lucid and convincing argument, Capra explains how the theoretical rules of technological know-how may be utilized to the sensible matters of our time. masking each element of human nature and society, he discusses such important issues because the administration of human agencies, the demanding situations and hazards of monetary globalization, and the character and the issues of biotechnology. He concludes with an authoritative, frequently provocative plan for designing ecologically sustainable groups and applied sciences as possible choices to the present financial globalization. a super, incisive exam of the connection among technology and our social structures, The Hidden Connections will spark huge, immense debate within the medical neighborhood and encourage us to contemplate the way forward for humanity in a brand new means.
By John Krige
In 1945, the U.S. was once not just the most powerful fiscal and army energy on the earth; it used to be additionally the world's chief in technological know-how and expertise. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of technological know-how in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures within the usa to version postwar medical practices and associations in Western Europe on these in the USA. They mobilized political and monetary help to advertise not only America's clinical and technological agendas in Western Europe yet its chilly warfare political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing at the paintings of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this test at clinical dominance through the usa will be obvious as a sort of "consensual hegemony," concerning the collaboration of influential neighborhood elites who shared American values. He makes use of this suggestion to investigate a chain of case experiences that describe how the united states management, senior officials within the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO technological know-how Committee, and influential individuals of the medical establishment--notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia college and Vannevar Bush of MIT--tried to Americanize medical practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations study. He information U.S. help for associations together with CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif close to Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's research exhibits how consensual hegemony in technology not just served the pursuits of postwar eu reconstruction yet turned otherwise of preserving American management and "making the area secure for democracy."
By Mark Risjord
The Philosophy of Social technological know-how: a modern Introduction examines the perennial questions of philosophy via enticing with the empirical research of society. The e-book deals a finished evaluate of debates within the box, with specified awareness to questions coming up from new examine courses within the social sciences. The textual content makes use of specific examples of social medical learn to inspire and illustrate the philosophical dialogue. themes comprise the connection of social coverage to social technology, interpretive examine, motion clarification, video game idea, social medical bills of norms, joint intentionality, reductionism, causal modeling, case examine study, and experimentation.
By Nicolaas A. Rupke
An exploration of the connection among medical rules, know-how, govt and politics, validated by way of examples from the final a hundred and fifty years, together with the start of the NHS, the Channel Tunnel, radiation safeguard, the atomic bomb and tool, and nuclear strength within the US and USSR.