By Robert Arp
In the period of "big data," technological know-how is more and more info pushed, and the opportunity of pcs to shop, deal with, and combine enormous quantities of knowledge has given upward push to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. utilized ontology deals a technique for the association of clinical info in computer-tractable shape, drawing on suggestions not just from laptop and data technology but additionally from linguistics, common sense, and philosophy. This booklet offers an creation to the sector of utilized ontology that's of specific relevance to biomedicine, protecting theoretical parts of ontologies, top practices for ontology layout, and examples of biomedical ontologies in use.
After defining an ontology as a illustration of the kinds of entities in a given area, the publication distinguishes among other kinds of ontologies and taxonomies, and exhibits how utilized ontology attracts on extra conventional principles from metaphysics. It offers the middle beneficial properties of the elemental Formal Ontology (BFO), now utilized by over 100 ontology initiatives world wide, and provides examples of area ontologies that make the most of BFO. The ebook additionally describes internet Ontology Language (OWL), a standard framework for Semantic net applied sciences. all through, the ebook presents concrete ideas for the layout and development of area ontologies.
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Extra info for Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology
A woman typing on a laptop in a Manhattan coffee shop stands in several relations to several other entities, and each one of those other entities is involved in multiple relations to further entities. She is • an instance of organism, • the daughter of a stockbroker, • such as to exemplify the quality of being seated, • supported by a chair, • adjacent to the counter, • located in Manhattan, • married to her spouse. At the same time, • her arm is part of her body, • her laptop screen is part of her laptop, • her latte is colder than that of her neighbor, and so on, in ever-widening circles.
Not everything that is part of an entity within a given domain is also part of that domain. Thus every human being has molecules as parts, but molecules do not form part of the domain of, for example, human geography, or human rights law (an issue that will be treated under the heading of “granularity” in chapter 3). Each domain ontology consists of a taxonomy (a hierarchy structured by the is_a relation) together with other relations such as part_of, contained_in, adjacent_to, has_agent, preceded_by, and so forth, along with definitions and axioms governing how its terms and relations are to be understood.
This does not imply, however, that the special role of universals emphasized in the preceding is of no consequence for OWL ontologies. For—as we shall be arguing throughout this work—to build an ontology that is able to serve the purposes of scientific research, it is vital that the ontology is built in such a way as to represent as accurately as possible the universals in the corresponding domains of reality. This holds even when we build ontologies incorporating terms representing defined classes.
Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology by Robert Arp