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Bones and Cartilage: Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal - download pdf or read online

By Brian K. Hall

ISBN-10: 0123190606

ISBN-13: 9780123190604

Bones and Cartilage offers the main in-depth evaluation ever assembled at the subject. It examines the functionality, improvement and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal platforms. It describes how bone and cartilage is built in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone reappears once we holiday a leg, or perhaps regenerates while a newt grows a brand new limb, or a lizard a tail.

This ebook additionally appears to be like on the molecules and cells that make bones and cartilages and the way they range in quite a few elements of the physique and throughout species. It solutions such questions as "Is bone continuously bone?” "Do bones that enhance not directly by means of changing different tissues, equivalent to marrow, tendons or ligaments, range from one another?” "Is fish bone almost like human bone?” "Can sharks even make bone?” and lots of extra.

·Complete assurance of each element of bone and cartilage
·Full of fascinating and weird facts
·The merely booklet to be had that integrates improvement and evolution of the skeleton

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Extra info for Bones and Cartilage: Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology

Sample text

2 This superficially simple and apparently ‘universal’ classification applies with any accuracy only to mammalian cartilages. The types of cartilage recognized using histological criteria expand considerably when other tetrapods and fish are considered, and expand enormously when lamprey and hagfish skeletons are taken into account. Those cartilages that are models for endochondral bones are primary and form the primary cartilaginous skeleton. Cartilages that arise from the periostea of membrane bones are secondary cartilages because they arise after (secondary to) bone formation.

5 Comparison of calcium accumulation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone Gla-protein in bone induced by demineralized bone matrix implanted into rats of different agesa Age (months) Total Caϩϩ/mgb Alkaline phosphatase activity (units/g)c Appearance of BPG (ng BPG/mg)d 1 3 10 16 110 65 30 15 35 35 30 13 45 23 15 0 a Based on data from Nishimoto et al. (1985) Total calcium present six weeks after implantation. c Activity three weeks after implantation. d BPG, bone Gla-protein; total BPG four weeks after implantation.

He S. jf S. ig S. mh S. ni T. mj – Gill Scale Skin – – – – Viscera Spine Head – – – – – Muscle Viscera Fin Scale Gill – Gut Skin Vertebrae Viscera Muscle Gut Fin Gill – Vertebrae Skin – Viscera Muscle Gut Scale Fin – Gill Vertebrae Skin Viscera Muscle Scale Fin Gill – Viscera Vertebrae Skin – Muscle Gut Vertebrae Fin/Gill – – – Skin Viscera – Gut Bone – – – – Skin Gill Muscle a Based on data from Simmons (1971). 1–9: concentration of stored Caϩϩ from lowest to highest. c Goldfish (Carassius auratus); d Guppy (Lebistes); e L.

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Bones and Cartilage: Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology by Brian K. Hall

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