By Carmen Giunta
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Atomism earlier than Dalton --
one hundred fifty years of natural constructions --
The atomic debates revisited --
Atoms are divisible: the items have items --
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Rediscovering atoms: an atomic travelogue.
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Additional resources for Atoms in Chemistry: From Dalton’s Predecessors to Complex Atoms and Beyond
44 In Atoms in Chemistry: From Dalton's Predecessors to Complex Atoms and Beyond; Giunta, C; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2010. Figure 5. Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov (1828-1886) Butlerov's Version of Structural Theory Expounded: The Speyer Paper Butlerov presented his first paper on structural theory, "Einiges iiber die chemische Struktur des Korpers," to the Chemistry Section at the Congress of German Naturalists and Physicians at Speyer in 1861 (52). " Although Butlerov had criticized Couper's structures in 1859, at the end of his Speyer lecture in 1861 he made the following telling comment: "I am even obliged to remark that the theory and formulas of Couper—whose too absolute and exclusive conclusions I disputed at that time—contained similar thinking.
The appearance of these papers also resulted in a polemical interchange over priority that left Couper a broken man, and boosted Kekule (with the help of Wurtz, amongst others) to the top echelons of organic chemistry in Europe (3). Organic Chemistry Prior to 1858: Radicals, Types, and Substitution Before we proceed with a discussion of these two papers, it is worthwhile examining the state of organic chemistry in 1858 - a mere 30 years after Wohler's serendipitous synthesis of urea while attempting to prepare ammonium cyanate (4).
R. Atoms and Alchemy, Chymistry and the Experimental Origins of the Scientific Revolution; The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 2006; Chapters 4, 5. 39. Partington, J. R. : London, 1970; Vol. 2, pp 387-388. 40. (a) Partington, J. R. : London, 1970; Vol. 2, pp 394-396. (b) Rees, G. Ann. Sci. 1980,549-571. (c) Cintas, P. Bull. Hist. Chem. 2003, 65-75. 41. (a) Kubbinga, H. H. J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 1988, 181, 205-218. (b) Kubbinga, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 33. 31 In Atoms in Chemistry: From Dalton's Predecessors to Complex Atoms and Beyond; Giunta, C; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2010.
Atoms in Chemistry: From Dalton’s Predecessors to Complex Atoms and Beyond by Carmen Giunta