By Michele Barone, Andrea Gaddi, Claude Leroy, Larry Price, Pier-Giorgio Rancoita
The exploration of the subnuclear global is finished via more and more advanced experiments protecting quite a lot of energies and in a wide number of environments - from particle accelerators, underground detectors to satellites and area laboratories. For those examine courses to be triumphant, novel recommendations, new fabrics and new instrumentation have to be utilized in detectors, usually on a wide scale. therefore, particle physics is on the leading edge of technological development and results in various functions. between those, clinical functions have a selected significance end result of the health and wellbeing and social merits they create. This quantity studies the advances made in all technological points of present experiments within the box.
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Fazio, P. G. Gucciardi, 0. M. Marag A. Morone, C. Spinella, Appl. Surf. Sci (2007), in press. 7. S. J. Tans, A. R. M. Verschueren, C. Dekker, Nature 393 (1998) 49-52 8. C Jarlskog in CP Violation,ed. C Jarlskog (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988). 9. L. Maiani, Phys. Lett. B 62,183 (1976). 10. D. Bjorken and I. Dunietz, Phys. Rev. D 36,2109 (1987). 11. D. Buchanan et al, Phys. Rev. D 45, 4088 (1992). 12. A. Di Bartolomeo, A. Scarfato, F. Giubileo, F. Bobba, M. Biasiucci and A. M. Cucolo, A local field emission study of partially aligned carbon-nanotubes by AFM probe, cond-mat/0702682, February.
To this end the LHCb detector includes two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors  which are capable of identifying pions, kaons and protons over a wide momentum range of l-lOOGeV/c. Both RTCH detectors make use of arrays of 484 pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs)  to detect the Cherenkov photons which are emitted by charged particles as they traverse the RICH. The HPDs must meet stringent performance requirements if they are to provide PID capability over the lifetime of the LHC. This paper reports the results of comprehensive quality assurance tests on all 550 HPDs which were manufactured for LHCb.
Already at 0 V we observe a CCE of 27%, an effect characteristic of the 3D geometry. At 190 V we obtain 100% CCE with good S / N separation. The next technological step will include the implementation of two types of alternated n and p column (Double Type Column, DTC, technology), starting from the opposite side of the wafer and stopping at 50 pm from the surface (Fig. 1) . it/. A 300pm t Figure 1: Layout of a 3D-dtc detector with alternating columns 31 3. 1 Introduction Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) are arrays of semiconductor photon detectors (micropixel) operating in Geiger modec4’(Fig.
Astroparticle, Particle and Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications (2006)(en)(114 by Michele Barone, Andrea Gaddi, Claude Leroy, Larry Price, Pier-Giorgio Rancoita