By Hugh Garner Bennett
The quick improvement of utilized Chemistry lately has caused a revolution in all branches of expertise. This development has been sped up in the course of the conflict, and the British Empire has now a chance of accelerating its business output by means of the appliance of this data to the uncooked fabrics on hand within the various elements of the area. the topic during this sequence of handbooks might be taken care of from the chemical instead of the engineering point of view. the commercial point can also be extra favourite than that of the laboratory.
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W h e n free acid is present in the t a n l i q u o r s , it tends t o distend t h e fibres composing t h e pelt by a s t r o n g and rapid adsorption. Thus distended or plumped - t l i e fibres present a still greater surface for adsorptive o p e r a t i o n , but the distension naturally leaves less space between i : l i e fibres for t h e diffusion of t h e sol. Hence acid or " s o u r VEGETABLE TANNAGE 45 tan liquors give in the long run more weight, b u t t a n more slowly. Pelt tanned whilst thus plumped forms naturally a thicker and less pliable leather.
I t is gathered in a more immature condition a n d includes the acorn. It is considered slightly inferior in strength a n d colour to the Smyrna valonia. The exterior of t h e acorn cup is covered with rather scaly VEGETABLE TANNAGE 31 protuberances known as " b e a r d / ' which contains usually about 40 per cent, of tannin. The cup alone contains usually about 25 per cent, tannin, and the whole about 30 per cent. The valonia tannin has been thought t o contain two chemical individuals, only one of which produces bloom.
Chestnut extract is extensively used by the heavy leather tanners. O a k w o o d E x t r a c t is manufactured from the wood of the common oak (Quercus robur). The centre of the industryhas been the o a i forest of Slavonia. The wood contains 2-4 per cent, of a tannin very similar t o t h a t of chestnut wood, but somewhat more astringent. 38 ANIMAL PROTEINS The manufacture is also similar to that of chestc extract, but decolonization is often, omitted, and greal care has to be taken and in other ways to keep the colo within limits.
animal proteins by Hugh Garner Bennett