By Noel Burton-Roberts
This hugely winning textual content has lengthy been thought of a regular advent to the sensible research of English sentence constitution. As in earlier variations, key options comparable to constituency, type and serve as are conscientiously defined as they're introduced.
content material: advent 1. Sentence constitution: components 2. Sentence constitution: capabilities three. Sentence constitution: different types four. the fundamental Verb word five. Adverbials and different issues 6. extra on verbs: auxiliary VPs7. The constitution of Noun words eight. Sentences inside of Sentences nine. Wh-clauses 10. Non-finite clauses eleven. Languages, sentences and grammars extra ReadingIndex
summary: This hugely winning textual content has lengthy been thought of a regular creation to the sensible research of English sentence constitution. As in past variations, key options similar to constituency, class and serve as are rigorously defined as they're brought
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Extra info for Analysing sentences : an introduction to English syntax
Other such examples are: Max coughed, Pigs fly, Empires decline, and Martha retaliated. In all such cases, we have no option but to analyse the sentence as consisting of two parts, as in :  But what about more complicated sentences? qxd 5/13/10 15:26 Page 25 SUBJECT AND PREDICATE perceive a similar pattern across a wide range of apparently different sentences. Take , for example:  The ducks are paddling away. We want to say that  has the same general structure as . By this I mean that it is divisible into two constituents in exactly the same way, that the two constituents are of the same general kind (or category) as the corresponding constituents of .
And the oddity of *What did Rory put? ) (g) On one interpretation the sequence is a constituent, cf. Sam managed to touch him and Who did Sam manage to touch? ) On the other interpretation, it is not a single phrase but a sequence of two phrases. Cf. Sam managed to touch him with an umbrella, Who did Sam manage to touch with an umbrella? ) 5. The fact that (b) is a well-formed sentence allows us to infer that every sequence of words omitted from (a) in order to form (b) can be counted as a constituent of (a).
You may be uncertain whether or not a given sequence of elements is represented as a phrase by a phrase marker. Before explaining this, I need to introduce some terminology that helps in finding our way around phrase markers. Here goes. Any point in a phrase marker that could branch and bear a label is called a ‘node’. In phrase marker  there are two nodes, labelled ‘PHRASE-a’ and ‘PHRASE-b’. A node is said to dominate everything that appears below it and joined to it by a line. Thus the node labelled ‘PHRASE-a’ dominates all the following elements: beside, PHRASE-b, a, stream, that, had, dried, and up.
Analysing sentences : an introduction to English syntax by Noel Burton-Roberts