By Francis Katamba
This e-book is an advent to phonological conception put in the framework of modern mainstream generative phonology. The booklet is split into major components. the 1st introduces readers to uncomplicated strategies of articulatory phonetics, classical phonemics and conventional generative phonology. the second one half is dedicated to phonological idea. the character and business enterprise of phonological representations in nonlinear generative phonology can also be explored.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Phonology (Learning About Language)
I quote Halle and Clements (1983:7) who give this cautious definition: 'Tense vowels are produced with a tongue body or tongue root configuration involving a greater degree of constriction than that found in their lax counterparts; this greater degree of constriction is usually accompanied by greater length. (Tense vowels vs. ' The English 'long' vowels and diphthongs [i, a, 0, u, ei, ai, oi, au, ju] are tense while the 'short' vowels [1, e, se, u, A, D] are lax. 5 Laryngeal features 14. SPREAD GLOTTIS - NONSPREAD GLOTTIS [± spread] Pushing the vocal cords wide apart augments the airflow through the glottis and inhibits voicing.
The upshot of this discussion is that one important aspect of linguistic knowledge is the knowledge of the functional phonological units which occur in one's language the knowledge of the segments which can be arranged in different patterns to form words. This knowledge is for the most part unconscious (just in the same way that knowledge of how to build boats which can float when fully laden has been in the minds of boat builders from time immemorial - long before they had any explicit understanding of the principles of physics involved).
Using this principle, sounds are isolated as belonging to separate phonemes if they occur in phonetically very similar, though not identical environments provided that the differences between them cannot be reasonably attributed to the influence of neighbouring sounds (see Chapter 5). Admittedly, there are bound to be occasional differences of opinion between phonologists as to what constitutes adequate similarity to justify labelling environments as 'analogous'. Phonological analysis is not an exact science.
An Introduction to Phonology (Learning About Language) by Francis Katamba