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Read e-book online American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science PDF

By John Krige

ISBN-10: 0262112973

ISBN-13: 9780262112970

In 1945, the U.S. was once not just the most powerful fiscal and army energy on the earth; it used to be additionally the world's chief in technological know-how and expertise. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of technological know-how in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures within the usa to version postwar medical practices and associations in Western Europe on these in the USA. They mobilized political and monetary help to advertise not only America's clinical and technological agendas in Western Europe yet its chilly warfare political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing at the paintings of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this test at clinical dominance through the usa will be obvious as a sort of "consensual hegemony," concerning the collaboration of influential neighborhood elites who shared American values. He makes use of this suggestion to investigate a chain of case experiences that describe how the united states management, senior officials within the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO technological know-how Committee, and influential individuals of the medical establishment--notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia college and Vannevar Bush of MIT--tried to Americanize medical practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations study. He information U.S. help for associations together with CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif close to Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's research exhibits how consensual hegemony in technology not just served the pursuits of postwar eu reconstruction yet turned otherwise of preserving American management and "making the area secure for democracy."

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The introductory and concluding sections to the ONR report made some general recommendations regarding the needs of science in Europe as a whole. ” Scientific training had been disrupted, scientific equipment and materials were sadly lacking, and money was in short supply. While “scientific thought in governmental circles” had been changed by the war—presumably meaning there was greater willingness to invest in science—the ONR also expressed concern about the presence of scientists in “high positions in government” who were “identified with extreme left wing groups in their countries” (an obvious reference to the situation in France).

6 Faced with increasing financial difficulties, the British government informed Washington in February 1947 that it could no longer provide economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey, and that it was withdrawing 18 Chapter 2 its troops from Greece. 25 million troops and was spending $3 billion annually to fulfill its worldwide commitments—a situation impossible to sustain in the winter crisis). Washington judged that if the United States did not intervene, the Greek Communists would capitalize on the ensuing unrest, seize power, and align the country with the Soviet Union.

The Republicans had just gained control of both houses. Ambitious newcomers, like Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy, joined sitting isolationists and nationalists from the Midwest and the mountain states, who were deeply hostile to foreign entanglements and financial sacrifices. Russia itself had begun to show a conciliatory attitude and was not a military threat. S. military supremacy, secured by the atomic bomb, long-range bombers, and overseas bases in strategic areas, was guaranteed for the immediate future.

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American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe by John Krige

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